Railway Cable Guide
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction
Reaching places was never an easy task; it always took days. It was still tiresome.
Previously people would dread to even think of travelling to another city for education or business; for such reasons, cars came into existence.
People would travel to different places, covering the maximum distance in minimum time. However, it does not seem sufficient.
People then start to prefer the train to cover high distances. Coal was in use as a medium of fuel. Burning coal became the cause of environmental pollution.
Moreover, the person responsible for the supply of coal would become a victim of lung diseases. So as to overcome the hazardous effects of the smoke of a coal train, electric trains came into being.
The electric trains use a power source to function appropriately. The electric train use train cable to operate, installation is either above or below the train tracks.
Railway cables are essential to address the present difficulties the rail route industry faces.
The allocation of the cables does not make much of the difference, whether on the base or onboard or suspended, what essential is the quality of the cables
The quality of the cable should be such that it can efficiently transmit energy. The train cables can control the power for various tasks and is of high quality in performance.
The train cables are to be free of halogens, toxic material and resistant to environmental effects. Resistance to fire and heat is essential. If the explosion takes place, it should be able to extinguish it by itself.
All the properties are present in our company’s cables. The train cables we provide gives high performance. You will find no complaints about our train cables, and satisfaction is guaranteed.
Our company gives the client the utmost satisfaction if there is any special requirement we are capable of manufacturing train cables according to your desires.
Chapter 2: What are the properties of a cable train?
The railway cables that our company manufactures show an exceptional improvement in performance to fire.
The features that make our company’s railway cables outstand is its self-extinguishing property, the property of controlling fire, and not being able to be affected by it.
Our railway cables have the following properties;
- Our cables are free from toxic materials and halogens
- Having no halogens makes our cable emit no or less smoke.
- The train cables can control the fire from spreading.
- Our company’s train cables have excellent electro-magnetic compatibility- EMC.
- The train cables of our company have excellent stripping properties, meaning the cable protective layer can quickly be taken off by a stripper for convenience of connection.
- The train cables we provide are highly responsive to flame and fire, to prevent critical damage, our train cables can extinguish it.
- Our company complies with international standards. There is no fear of error.
- The train cables are resistant to environmental factors, to never stop working.
- The train cables of our company are flexible enough to adapt to any requirement.
- The train cables are free from traction.
- The train cables are least in effect by water.
- The train cables are resistant to oil.
- The train cables are resistant to several other solvents.
Chapter 3: What are the types of train cable?
Chapter 3.1: Train power cable:
Chapter 3.1 (a) Track feeder cable
- The electrical power in abundant supply to the train is by the power cable. The power cable supplies power to the various parts of the train system.
- The power cable in train cable uses direct current from alternating current to supply it to the substations.
- The track feeder routes use 450/750 volts of direct current from the feeder substations.
- In a single core of track feeder, the conducting material in use is of copper or aluminium. Mostly copper is in use for high performance.
- But aluminium is being a substitute for copper because of its rate.
- Poly Ethylene is in use to create a gap between the conducting material and the outer covering, to have a high level of conductance.
- These are free from halogens, and outer most covering is of Poly Vinyl Chloride.
Chapter 3.1 (b) Earthing cables
- Earthing cables are present for conductivity to provide stability.
- These cables are highly useful in ticket booths, escalators, lighting systems, doors, information displaying technology.
Chapter 3.1 (c) Aluminium power cable
- The aluminium power cables are primarily in use for trackside signalling.
- To provide power for the communication of trackside. To change the direction of the power cable supplies power to send the signal to the trackside.
- These cables are available in two or more cores for maximum power supply.
Chapter 3.1 (d) Point heating cable
- A switch point is a guide for the track to switch from one direction to another.
- The work during the winter season of the switch points is in compromise.
- The extreme cold freezes the point to function correctly, causing trafficking and accidents.
- The points of a switch are to be in a constant supply of heat to function efficiently, especially in the areas where winter is in severity.
- Such cables consist of a flexible conducting material of tinned copper.
- Ethylene propylene rubber as an insulating material is in use for maximum protection and resistance towards water and temperature.
- Such cables working for outdoor purpose are made sure to be resistant to cuts and tears.
According to voltages, the power cables are in a distribution of three categories;
Chapter 3.1 (d) 1. High voltage cable:
- The underground cables supply the substation for power.
- It is mostly suitable for power supply of traction.
- The alternating current varies between 46 kV and 345 kV.
Chapter 3.1 (d) 2 Medium Voltage:
- Medium voltage is in use for a stand distribution of power supply to the transformer station.
- It is suitable for all sorts of working mechanism; for lighting, security, for ventilation purpose, and to handle the information.
- The medium voltage ranges from 15 kV to 45 kV.
- Medium voltage is also in use for single-phase traction.
- The conductor in use in medium voltage is either aluminium or copper; it is further in protection in a helical layering along with galvanized armour.
Chapter 3.1 (d) 3 Low Voltage:
- The low voltage power cable is in use when the supply and distribution of power are within the station.
- The distribution of the power is in escalators, automatic doors, informative screens/ LED, camera for security and ticket counter etc.
- The distribution of power is from the transformer station.
- The power of low voltage cable is of 230/400 volts.
Chapter 3.2: Train overhead line cable:
- An overhead cable line is in a structure on the guideline of at least one overhead wires (or rails, especially in burrows) in an arrangement over rail tracks
- These cables are in suspension to a high electrical potential by association with feeder stations at standard interims.
- The feeder stations are generally in supply with a high-voltage of electrical power.
Chapter 3.3: Train signalling and controlling cable:
Signalling cables is a type of train cable which is useful in the transmission of communication between devices. It serves the purpose of giving signals or messages to the railway system.
Train signalling cable, train cables, are useful to provide safety of connection in transportation between devices.
It is responsible for the control of command.
The safety devices of railway transport may include;
|The conductor for train signalling train cable is copper.
|The insulating material of preference is of Poly Ethylene.
|The signalling cable, train cable, consists of more than one core. It is available in double or in four cores that are quad-core.
|A dielectric or a separating material is present to protect the flow of power. For efficiency in work, it serves to be useful, as it creates a barrier for the conducting material.
|A protecting layer or sheath is in use of Poly Vinyl Chloride or Poly Ethylene.
|To protect the cable from mechanical stress, a further layer of protection is in place. Mostly iron is in use to serve such a purpose of protection.
|A screening of copper is in place to reduce the electromagnetic induction or the disturbance of the flow of power.
|The final covering of PVC- Poly Vinyl Chloride or Poly Ethylene is in covering for protection from the external factors.
Chapter 3.4: Train underground cable:
For subways and railways underground, the underground cables are in use.
Chapter 3.5: Train telecommunication cable:
Between devices of communication, the transmission of signals is possible by using communication cables. The types of wires in the usage of communication are in two categories.
The two categories of communication are as follows:
Chapter 3.5 (a) Indoor communication
- In indoor communication for train cables, the conductor in use is copper.
- The insulation of the indoor communication train cables may vary according to user preference from rubber, PVC- Poly Vinyl Chloride to Poly Ethylene.
- There are further cores present in the cable for stability, our company’s cables provide in pairs or quads, according to your desires.
- For the protection of the Train cable of communication, there is an inner protective layer which forbids the loss of electric power.
- A further protective layer is present as screening of aluminium or any other material of your choice for proper conduction, and to avoid any resistance inflow of communication. This inner layer provides a separation between the conducting material and the outer most material for minimum errors.
- The outer most covering is of insulation material. A layer strong enough to protect any electrical loss, and to be able to withstand any adverse climatic effects. The insulating material is of PVC- Poly Vinyl Chloride or Poly Ethylene.
Chapter 3.5 (b): Outdoor Communication Cables:
- For outdoor usage in train cables, the critical point is to be unaffected by the environment.
- The conductor outdoor communication cable uses of copper.
- The insulating material to protect the conductor is of a Poly Ethylene or your choice/ selection.
- The number of cores depends on the user, and it can vary from 2 cores to four or more.
- To make the communicating train cable suitable for outdoor use, a filling in the cores of the cables with a hydrophobic material or water repellent material, to block the entrance of water.
- There is an extra inner layer to create a distance between the outside and the core, a layer of sheathing material. It is laminated or dielectric.
- The outer layer of the outdoor communicating train cable is of aluminium or material of your choice. It promotes the conduction property with safety.
- For outdoor communication train cables, there is a requirement of extra protection to face outdoor complications. Mostly Poly Vinyl Chloride- PVC is in abundant use.
Chapter 3.6: Special use
Our company serves a rain cable for a particular usage of specific requirement or conditions. We do not let our clients down, fulfil all their needs.
The construction of such special train cables solely depends on the client’s list of requirements.
These cables are best in resisting outdoor climates or hazardous effects.
The extraordinary cables of communication and signalling in train cables are in a category of two groups.
- With Functionality of a cable of an hour or more in fire
- Without Functionality of a cable of an hour or more in fire
Chapter 3.6 (a): Without the functionality of a cable of an hour or more in fire:
- Such special cables are useful in the utilisation for the transmission of computerised and straightforward information
- The special train cables are primarily for a stable situation of interior wiring in correspondence innovation for the security of individuals
- And significant (costly) gadgets (hardware, property) in case of fire.
- Where on account of fire, it can function. A small quantity of smoke emitted with no dropping particles. These cables are free from halogens.
- Copper is in use as a material of the conductor.
- Since it is in use for special requirement, halogen-free material is useful for insulation purpose.
- For stability, the cable consists of one or more cores, in pair or quad.
- The particular separation layer is also of a material free from halogen to be retardant to fire and smoke.
- The screening is such that a drain wire appears to be useful for maximum protection.
- The filling of the core is done by rubber to make it waterproof
- Furthermore, finally, a sheath of any protective polymer is in use.
Chapter 3.6 (b): With Functionality of a cable of an hour or more in fire
- The train cable for communication and transmission of data or messages, such cables are in use.
- These special cables are particularly in use for the internal communication system and the safety of passengers.
- Such cables do not prove only to be useful for the protection of people, but the protection of the material inside.
- Such cables are especially in preference for installation where the loss of data is crucial in the fire.
- To avoid the loss of material or critical things, choose such special cables.
- The conductor in use for conduction because of its unique properties is copper.
- Silicon rubber for insulation is proven to be useful for such particular usage. Silicon rubber is resistant towards decomposition, and it is flexible and highly resistant towards oil and other liquids. Best insulating material.
- For higher capacitance and a separation layer without effecting the cores or conducting material, a dielectric free from halogen is in use.
- A screening of drain wire is useful for grounding purpose and for reducing the noise, completing the circuit.
- The filling of the cable is of a polymer, free from halogen.
- The sheathing is also of a material free from halogen.
- The free-from halogen gives it the unique properties of less emission of smoke and fire retardation.
Chapter 4: What insulating material should you prefer?
To choose from PVC- Poly Vinyl Chloride and PE- Poly Ethylene, we have made it easier for you to choose. The points are as follows.
Chapter 4.1: PE- Poly Ethylene
|Poly Ethylene is free from halogen.
|Poly Ethylene is flame retardant.
|Poly Ethylene rated voltage is 0.6/1(1.2) kV.
|Poly Ethylene bending radius is of 12 times diameter during installation, and after installation, it is 8 times diameter.
|Poly Ethylene conducting temperature is more than 90-degree Celcius.
|Poly Ethylene is resistant towards Ultra Violet rays.
|Poly Ethylene emits low smoke.
|Poly Ethylene is friendly to the environment
Chapter 4.2: PVC- Poly Vinyl Chloride
- Poly Vinyl Chloride is free from halogen.
- Poly Vinyl Chloride is flame retardant.
- Poly Vinyl Chloride rated voltage is 0.6/1(1.2) kV
- Poly Vinyl Chloride bending radius is of 12 times diameter during installation, and after installation, it is 8 times diameter.
- Poly Vinyl Chloride conducting temperature is more than 70-degree Celsius
- Poly Vinyl Chloride is waterproof, not affected by the presence of water.
- Poly Vinyl Chloride emits low smoke.
- Poly Vinyl Chloride is friendly to the environment.
Chapter 5: Is there any standard to keep in check?
|The international standards when it comes to cables to keep in check are as follows:
|A standard test to see the spread of fire in verticality.
||1. EN/IEC 60332-1
|A standard for the spread of fire in a vertical position on a bundle of cables.
||2. EN/IEC 60332-3
|The cable is in a horizontal position and allowed to burn to check the insulating property.
||3. IEC 331
|The standard test for the mounting system.
||4. DIN 4102 part 12
|The test of the quantity or density of smoke emission.
||5. IEC 61034
|The test of the halogen gas
||6. IEC 60754-1
|The test of the acidity of the gasses emission when burning.
||7. IEC 60754-2
Chapter 6: Why choose us and our train cables?
A quality item with immaculate properties has become a typical desire for our clients effectively quite a while back.
We agree to the fact with confidence that we are fit for offering considerably more than what we present.
Our cables do no look good on the outside with perfect finishing, but each material is of high quality and excellence.
Our company’s name replaces the word ‘quality’ because of the perfection and satisfaction we provide.
We are highly efficient when it comes to the client’s needs, and we incorporate your requirements and ideas to our designs to achieve the highest level of satisfaction.
Our train cables are of exceptional quality. If you wish to have proficiency in your work, choose our train cables, and you will not be disappointed.
Consumer satisfaction is the utmost priority.