Submarine Cable Guide
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION:
The 21st century is the revolutionary age where all of us are in contact with each other through the internet. The Internet today has made us capable of doing almost anything from anywhere.
Submarine cable manufacturers provide you with the most efficient designs of submarine data cables. Our company has an excellent reputation for the quality of services we provide.
Before the development of the internet, the only sources of connection were letters and telephones and telegrams. But with the advancement of technology, the internet came into being.
Internet development has saved us from third parties hacking the messages which invaded our privacy. The internet provides a secure platform for sharing and connecting.
Nowadays, for the transmission of signals to your home and offices, submarine cables are in use. Submarine telecommunication and power cables are off the grid cables that are put to use in the sea.
With other submarine data cables, there may or may not be a loss of signals. But with our company’s underwater sea cables, this energy loss turns out to be minimum.
If you are looking for an unforgettable experience, our company’s submarine cables are the ideal choice.
To know more about the cables of submarine cable manufacturer’s, take a look at the information below:
CHAPTER 2: WHAT ARE THE SUBMARINE CABLES?
Submarine telecommunication cables are internet transmission cables. Submarine cables are put in at the bottom of the sea, which through pulses and signals provides the internet.
Submarine data cables are special cables that possess a single core that is responsible for internet transmission.
The center of the underwater sea cables is covered by a protective layer, which acts as a barrier for reducing interference or signal loss.
CHAPTER 3: WHAT IS THE STRUCTURE OF SUBMARINE DATA CABLES?
Submarine data cables consist of a single cable that is made up of three parts. These three parts include:
THE OUTERMOST LAYER:
- The outermost layer is the final layer of underwater sea cables.
- This outermost layer acts as the armor/protection of the submarine cables.
- This layer protects the submarine data cable from wear and tear due to external forces.
- This layer also protects the cable from the environmental impacts of heat, cold, pressure, humidity, etc.
- This layer is the very reason why the submarine telecommunication cables are moisture resistant.
- This outer layer makes the cables fire and flame resistant.
THE MIDDLE LAYER:
- The middle layer of the underwater sea cables is known as the sheath of the cable.
- The middle layer is the one that is responsible for the loss of signals during the transmission.
- This layer is made up of aluminum
- It is the barrier layer which prevents the leaking of signals from the submarine data cables during transmission.
- If required, another layer can also be put up on the top of the middle layer. This additional layer provides an extra layer of protection.
- The additional layer is useful when the submarine cables are useful for covering long distances.
THE INNER LAYER:
- The inner layer is known as the core of the submarine telecommunication cable.
- It is either made up of copper or aluminum. Aluminum is mostly put to use since it performs efficient electrical transmission.
- It may be in the design of braid or not. The braiding depends upon preference and customization.
- This layer of the submarine cables is responsible for the transmission of signals.
CHAPTER 4: HOW THICK ARE UNDERWATER SEA CABLES?
The thickness of the submarine data cables is very different from the regular ones. The cables underwater are as big as a garden hose.
The submarine telecommunication cables are built up of filaments. These filaments are incredibly tiny. The diameter of these filaments is roughly near to the width of human hair.
The fibers or filaments in the submarine data cables are woven together in sheaths. On top of the sheaths, layers of insulation protection are present. The insulation acts as a barrier between cable and outer environment.
Furthermore, the underwater sea cables that are nearer to the seashore get additional protection. This extra protection prevents external forces from damaging the submarine cables.
CHAPTER 5: WHAT ARE THE FEATURES OF SUBMARINE CABLES?
The most prominent features of the submarine cables include:
- Submarine data cables are cable of covering long distances.
- Excellent flexibility is another feature of submarine cables. Due to its versatility, you can bend these in any direction.
- Submarine telecommunication cables have significant resistance to fire and weather conditions.
- Underwater sea cables are the ideal choice for marine cable applications since these cables are moisture resistant.
Submarine cables are a marvel of technology and innovation. These cables connect the world, taking everyone out of their off the grid living.
CHAPTER 6: WHAT IS THE FUNCTIONING OF SUBMARINE CABLES?
Submarine telecommunication cables are the solution to all your problems. These underwater sea cables are manufactured specifically for your assistance.
Before the development of underwater sea cables, fast and effective communication was not possible. Performing a task or getting a reply required a long duration of the wait.
People had to wait for weeks and months to get a reply from their loved ones, missing out on mostly everything.
But, the invention of submarine cables brought them together. Now, people are far but still connected in every possible way.
Submarine telecommunication cables have made life easy. These cables give a sense of security and safety since there is no hacking or interception.
CHAPTER 7: WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF SUBMARINE CABLES?
There are many types of submarine telecommunication cables. The variation in these types depend upon:
- Length of the wires.
- The thickness of the cables.
- Material for the creation.
CHAPTER 7.1: RADIO GUIDE (RG) SUBMARINE CABLES:
The term RG stands for Radio Guide. The most common of submarine data cables that are manufactured by the Submarine cable companies are the RG cables.
Radio guide submarine cable is commercially in use. The further types of RG submarine data cable include:
- RG-6, which is the most commonly used commercial submarine cable.
- RG-8 is useful for radio signal transmission.
- RG-58, mainly in use for offshore applications.
- RG-214, useful for high-frequency signal transmission.
CHAPTER 7.1 (1) WHAT IS RG6 SUBMARINE DATA CABLE?
- RG 6, also known as Radio Guide 6, is the underwater sea cables that are most commonly in use.
- Radio guide six submarine cables are useful for the transmission of both audio and video signals.
- The signal transmission in Radio Guide 6 cables takes place from source to the destination device.
- RG6 uses connectors that are for the satellite dishes and the cables of television.
- Radio Guide 6 submarine data cables are the better and more efficient version underwater cable replacement of Radio Guide 59.
- This improved version of underwater sea cables has a design that deals with the loss and leakage of signals.
- This type of submarine telecommunication cable is the most durable of all.
- RG 6 is also possesses excellent resistant to environmental hazards.
CHAPTER 7.1 (2) WHAT IS RG 214 UNDERWATER SEA CABLE?
- Radio Guide 214 submarine cable is in use when high-frequency transmission of signals is in consideration.
- The outer most protected layer of Radio Guide 214 underwater cables is made up of PVC. It also consists of an outer conductor of silver-plated, double.
- PVC is made of use because it helps in securing the cable from any abrasion or wear and tear.
- The usage of PVC is suitable for adding moisture resistance.
- The dielectric of these submarine data cables is of polyethylene.
- Polyethylene is an excellent choice due to its cross-linking property.
- Polyethylene offers significant resistance to pressure, electric shock, fire, and flames.
- No loss or leakage of signals occur in Polyethylene,
- RG 214 submarine cables possess excellent properties for shielding power transmission.
- RG 214 is useful for various applications as for the transmission of data, in broadcasting, in radio transmission, and other computer applications, etc.
CHAPTER 8: HOW DOES THE SUBMARINE TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES WORK?
The submarine cable company’s underwater sea cables are the most efficient and durable choice. These cables transfer signals efficiently.
The underwater sea cables possess protection in the form of the outer armor layer. This layer enables the submarine cables to overcome the losses due to electromagnetic induction.
The initial that is the innermost layer of the submarine telecommunication cables is called the dielectric layer.
The dielectric layer acts as an insulator. It does not allow the electric current to pass outside. It is thereby making the wire safe.
Another element known as the tinned wire is also useful in making the submarine cables resistant to corrosion and water damage.
Further insulation is due to the dielectric layer. It increases the distance between itself and the central core.
This dielectric in the submarine data cables is either made up of PVC or a blend of plastic material, which keeps the central core erect.
After this, another protecting material of copper and aluminum, or a mixture of the two is put up on the top of the cover for added security of underwater sea cables.
Then comes the final layer of the underwater sea cables. Also known as the outer most layer, which is visible to our eye. All these layers work together to protect the wire.
Due to these safe layers and protective envelops, the electric waves can pass through the submarine telecommunication cables without any interruption.
CHAPTER 9: HOW ARE THE SUBMARINE DATA CABLES CONNECTED?
Connecting the submarine telecommunication cables is of utmost importance. Connecting wires is because a single cable would not be enough to work alone.
As the length of the submarine cables increases, connectors are useful so the cables work efficiently, and minimize the loss of energy.
Submarine cable manufacturers advise you to use the following method for connecting the underwater sea cables:
|You should come prepared when buying underwater sea cables.
|You should purchase the connectors at the same time when you are placing the order for the submarine cable.
|Connectors come in two types, such as the male and the female connector.
|The male connector has teeth. You can attach the male connector to the ends of the submarine data cable.
|The teeth will help in holding the cables together firmly.
|The female connectors are known as barrel connector.
|The female connectors are hard to find and are preferred to be put to use in other parts of the cable.
|In case when you need an ultra high-frequency connection, use electrical tape to secure the underwater sea cable with additional protection.
CHAPTER 10: WHY SHOULD YOU MAKE USE OF SUBMARINE DATA CABLES INSTEAD OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION?
The reason why you should not be making use of satellite communication instead of submarine data cables is: The satellite is not a reliable source.
Satellite is not reliable because the connection of satellite communication is interrupted very quickly, which can lead to failure or fault.
Before the invention of submarine data cables, people put to use satellite communication but faced many errors due to the interruption and loss of signals.
Satellite communication is not safe. The reason is that if anyone tunes in to the right frequency, they would be able to hear and read all of your data.
Submarine telecommunication cables are the best choice in this case because the wire is protected in several layers from invasions and is capable of maintaining a person’s privacy.
You can make use of submarine data cables almost anywhere with easy installation.
CHAPTER 11: IS THERE ANY DISADVANTAGE OF SUBMARINE TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES?
The submarine data cable is cheap, easy to handle, and easily installed. But its precision and efficiency overlook its weight and diameter.
The only disadvantage of the Underwater sea cables you may face can be because of the increase in its length/ distance.
As the length of the underwater cables increases, the cable’s possibility of signal loss increases.
But, the submarine cable company has efficiently overcome this disadvantage by the installation of a repeater when needed.
CHAPTER 12: WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF THE SUBMARINE DATA CABLES?
The advantage of the underwater sea cables are not just limited its low cost and ease of installation, but it also has several other benefits:
The benefits are as follows;
- Submarine data cables are a broadband system wide enough to accommodate not just one channel but many others.
- The is no impact on the frequency of the submarine underwater cables by the number of channels.
- Underwater sea cables are useful for providing a wide range of signals.
- The submarine cables possess substantial capacitance.
- The error is minimized in submarine data cables because these cables consist of protective layering, which blocks the electromagnetic induction and leakage of signals.
- The cables consist of connectors that prevent leakages.
- Underwater sea cable reduces noise and cross-talks by the provision of space in the amplifiers.
CHAPTER 13: WHAT ARE THE LOSSES YOU SHOULD CONSIDER IN THE SUBMARINE DATA CABLES?
CHAPTER 13.1: RESISTIVE LOSSES:
- The resistive loss, which occurs due to heat, is also known as joules loss.
- Resistive loss occurs when the heat is produced in the conductor as the current passes through it.
- Submarine cable manufacturers make corrections of this loss by using more than one strand as a conductor, which minimizes the friction.
CHAPTER 13.2: DIELECTRIC LOSSES:
- Dielectric loss in submarine cables occurs because of the increase in heat.
- When current passes through the cable, the generation of heat takes place.
CHAPTER 13.3: RADIATED LOSSES:
- Radiated loss takes place when the outer surface area is higher and the braiding done is poor. It means that the smaller the space, the smaller the damage.
- Radiated loss is a type of injury that is smaller in comparison to the above two mentioned losses.
CHAPTER 14: ARE UNDERWATER SEA CABLES HARMFUL?
The only way to protect the eco-system from getting destroyed is to be considerate in every field of life. And the cables are one of them.
- Submarine data cables produce low smoke emission, which is why these cables are environment-friendly.
- Underwater sea cables are free from halogens, which are incredibly harmful to the environment.
- Submarine telecommunication cables are fire-resistant due to which these cables prevent the fire from spreading.
CHAPTER 15: WHAT ARE THE APPLICATIONS OF SUBMARINE CABLES?
There are various applications of submarine data cables:
- Underwater sea cables are useful in telecommunication services.
- Submarine telecommunication cables are in use for the transmission of data, video, pictures, documents, etc
- Because of the submarine cables, the transmitter of radio and receivers can be in link with the internet.
CHAPTER 16: CAN SUBMARINE DATA CABLES BE PUT TO USE IN RADIO FOR AUDIO TRANSMISSION?
Underwater sea cables do not serve the purpose of broadband, but these cables serve the purpose of transmission of audio signals
When the submarine data cables are connected to the radio while its transmitter is directly in link to the antennas, efficient transmission of audio signals is possible.
CHAPTER 17: WHAT ARE THE IMPORTANT PARAMETERS OF THE UNDERWATER SEA CABLES?
A regular cable is made up of its parameters, which determines the function and performance of the cable. You need to take proper consideration of these parameters.
The different parameters of submarine telecommunication cables include;
|The physical setting of the submarine cable’s
|The inner diameter.
|The outer diameter.
|Insulating material for better resistance.
|You should carry Pre calculations of the wire for voltage, attenuation per unit length, strength, and permeability, etc.
|The capacity of shunt, series inductance, and series resistance. Shunt conductance per unit length of the underwater sea cable.
|The type of dielectric.
|The type of conductor put in the cable.
CHAPTER 18: IS THE BREAKING OF SUBMARINE DATA CABLES POSSIBLE?
Cable faults are common in every cable. So, yes, the breaking of submarine telecommunication cables is possible.
But the odds of that happening is very low. On average, over 100 cables can break each year.
This breakage happens because of accidents like shipping vessels, ship anchors, earthquakes, etc. As a result, cables may fail.
The submarine cable companies make use of ‘safety in numbers’ approach. In this way, the network capacity is vast.
In this way, if one submarine cable breaks or stops working, the network will operate efficiently while the repair of the other underwater sea cable is under progress.